Types and causes of kidney Diseases

We all are born with 2 kidneys that are above our waist on either side of our spine. These two organs though just fist-sized, perform the most crucial functions in our body.

  • They help maintain the balance of water and minerals in our blood.
  • They remove waste from our blood after digestion, after consumption of chemicals and medications.
  • They produce renin which regulates the blood pressure in your body.
  • They produce erythropoietin which helps in building the red blood cells army.
  • They activate a form of Vitamin D that aids in the absorption of calcium.

Kidney diseases can damage the organs and significantly affect their ability to perform their normal functions. Additionally, they can give rise to complications like high blood pressure, damaged nerves and brittle bones.

According to NDTV- The number of Indians suffering from chronic kidney ailments has doubled in the past 15 years, and at present 17 in every hundred citizens suffer from some form of kidney disease, health experts have said.

The experts noted that several Indian population-based studies in the past estimated that some 150-230 persons suffer from End-Stage Kidney Disease (ESKD) in every million people, and about 2,20,000-2,75,000 new patients need Renal Replacement Therapy (RRT) every year.

The number of patients undergoing dialysis in India is also increasing by 10-15 percent every year, which majorly includes children too.

There are 2 main types of Kidney Disorders

  1. Acute Kidney Injury
  2. Chronic Kidney disease.

Acute Kidney Injury

This is why it can happen

This is short-term kidney disease. It has a very sudden onset due to an illness or an injury and leads to a temporary loss of function of the kidneys.

  • Limited blood flow to the kidneys
  • Direct damage to the kidneys
  • Urine backed up in the kidneys

This happens to people who are

  • Who have had a traumatic injury with blood loss, such as an accident.
  • Are dehydrated or have a muscle tissue breakdown that sends too much protein into the bloodstream.
  • Have gone into a shock due to a severe infection.
  • Have an enlarged prostate that blocks your urine flow.
  • Have taken certain drugs or medication that can directly damage the kidneys.
  • Have developed eclampsia or preeclampsia during pregnancy.
  • Who are suffering from an autoimmune disorder.
  • Have a severe heart or liver failure.

Most people recover from an acute kidney injury in about 3 months and go back to leading normal lives but if major damage has occurred, then this condition has the potential to develop into long-term kidney disease. We’ll speak about that in just a while. The important thing here is to monitor the condition closely and maintain the right diet and nutrition. Short-term dialysis also may be required to stabilize the kidneys and bring them back to normal functioning.

Chronic Kidney Disease

Irreversible damage to the kidneys leads to Chronic Kidney Disease. Unfortunately, this condition develops gradually and is usually diagnosed after 3 to 4 months. The patients experience a steady decline in the functioning of their kidneys and they have to undergo kidney replacement treatment. This means regular dialysis or a kidney transplant.

Chronic kidney disease is divided into five stages. The kidney failure stages are based on the eGFR test result and how well your kidneys are functioning. As the stages go up, the disease gets worse. At each stage, it is crucial to take the necessary steps to slow down the damage to the kidneys.

So if you are experiencing any of these symptoms you should consult a doctor.

  • Tiredness and fatigue
  • Disturbed sleep
  • Poor appetite
  • Cramps in muscles
  • Swelling on the feet or ankles
  • Puffy eyes
  • Dry skin
  • Increase in the frequency of passing urine.

Let’s also look into the causes of the diseases of the kidneys

  1. Diabetes- Unmanaged blood sugar can damage organs like the heart, nerves, eyes, and kidneys.
  2. High Blood Pressure- Unmanaged or poorly managed blood pressure can lead to Chronic Kidney Disease with the pressure it exerts on the walls of the blood vessels.
  3. Autoimmune diseases- With the body’s defense system turning against it, the blood vessels that filter the waste in the kidneys get inflamed leading to a condition called Lupus Nephritis.
  4. Genetic causes. Kidney diseases like Polycystic kidney diseases form cysts in the kidneys and damage the surrounding tissues.
  5. Glomerulonephritis- This is a set of diseases that inflame and damage the filtering units of the kidneys.
  6. Kidney stones- They increase the risk of developing chronic kidney disease. lf anyone has had one stone, they are at increased risk of developing another one within 5 to 7 years.

The approximate cost of treatment of kidney stones treatment in Bangalore is around 30,000 to 1,50,000.

The goals of the treatment are to manage and ease down symptoms, keep the disease from worsening, and reduce complications. Sometimes treatment may help restore kidney function partially.

Some of the hospitals that offer kidney treatment in Bangalore are Fortis, Columbia Asia, Manipal, etc. Bangalore also has continuum care centers like Sukino Healthcare that offer rehabilitation for Kidney patients post-surgery.


What is the main cause of kidney disease?

 Untreated and unmanaged diabetes and high blood pressure are the 2 main causes of kidney disease.

What are the symptoms of Kidney diseases?

Tiredness and fatigue, disturbed sleep, poor appetite, cramps in muscles ,swelling on the feet or ankles, puffy eyes, dry skin, increase in the frequency of passing urine are the most common symptoms of kidney diseases.

How many types of kidney diseases are there?

There are 2 types of kidney diseases.
Acute kidney injury which is short-term happens suddenly but can be cured with medication and treatment within 3 months.
Chronic kidney disease is a long-term disease and is uncurable. However, the progression of the disease can be slowed down with the right treatment until a transplant happens.